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GASTRONOMIC TOUR "EXOTIC CUISINE"
Thai cuisine has evolved over the centuries under the influence of Chinese, Indian and European ones. Originally mostly fish, seafood and aquatic plants were used as food. Like in other Asian cuisines, the main ingredient is rice. Unlike European cuisines, where the only main dish is completed by garnish and salad, main dish in Thai cuisine is a large portion of rice, which is served with a few extra dishes, while keeping an eye on the balance of acute and moderately spicy dishes. Usually curry or spicy salad with a sauce of fish and vegetables is served with rice. Basis for the majority of Thai dishes is the spicy mixture “nam phrik” made of garlic, chili peppers and various herbs. All components are ground in a mortar until a paste and together with a vegetable oil enter the wok, where then other components are fried (meat, fish, vegetables, noodles).
It differs by preference of natural, minimally processed foods, the extensive use of seafood, seasonal, typical dishes, specific rules of food presentation, serving and table etiquette. Japanese cuisine, as a rule, is a key attraction for tourists from other countries. Rice - is the main ingredient of Japanese cuisine and basic food in Japan. In Japanese the word "tyaxan" (boiled rice), like the Russian "bread", denotes not only a particular food product, but the food at all. Fish, mollusks, marine animals are the second most important components in Japanese cuisine after rice. As a rule, during the preparation they are undergone only a small thermal treatment (roasting, steaming), and in some of the dishes (sashimi) are included just raw seafood. Seaweed is also used in Japanese cuisine. Japanese food is not like even the other Asian cuisines. The specific features of Japanese cuisine are the minimum processing of products, usage of only fresh ingredients, small portions and preparation of seasonal dishes. Japanese dishes are the healthy food, as food for Japanese cuisine should be eaten raw or half-baked, and always fresh. It should be noted that Japanese cuisine and Japanese chefs pay more attention to meal presentation. According to the Japanese, the food must deliver not only physical but also spiritual, aesthetic pleasure.
Arabian cuisine evolved from the cuisine of the nomadic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula. Then it was influenced by cuisines of the nations conquered by the Arabs: the Byzantines and Spaniards. Recipes of Arabic cuisine in one or another form are reflected in European cuisines too. The desert regions of the Middle East cannot be called generous for different products, so Arabic cuisine uses them not so much.
It is rich with mutton and fish. Legumes are very common, less common is rice. Vegetables are rarer than in other cuisines. And of course the sweets, they are especially used at Arabian cuisine. The recipes of Arabian cuisine are abounding of spices: saffron, cloves, cardamom and nutmeg. If you want to get a taste of the East, to dive into the world of "A Thousand and One Nights", Arabic cuisine will help you.
Despite the existence of several thousands of castes with their regulations on food, only two religions, Hinduism and Islam, influenced the recipes of Indian cuisine. Most strongly Indian cuisine was affected by Great Mughals. Until today reached such Indian recipes as fat rice, biriyani, bread stuffed with almonds, dried fruit and sweet cream. They brought with them the tandoor - a large standing oven where bread and meat are cooked. Famous tandoori came from northern regions. In Indian cuisine using of cow meat in eating as well as all cattle meat, is strictly forbidden by religious laws and ancient customs, which adhere even Muslims. At the same time in Goa region people eat a lot of pork; rice and pork are the basic food of the Goa people in all seasons. Many Indians in the South are vegans. The basis of their food are made of sweet peppers, figs, yellow lentils and boiled rice. The most famous Indian dish is probably a curry. In Indian cuisine curry is mainly vegetables and very sharp. Curry for the Indians is not only seasoning but a group of dishes united by a common feature - a thick consistency and a combination of freshly ground spices that make one dish different from another one.
Chinese cuisine has a few rules of cooking, for example, all products must be cut into small pieces and it is quite logical because otherwise it would be very difficult to eat them with chopsticks. Before the eating Chinese drink a cup or two of green tea, only then you can eat. They usually end up eating with a soup that is quite incomprehensible to Europeans.
Chinese cuisine recipes which are often composed of hard incongruous products, such as fish or pork with caramel under the sugary-sweet sauce, excite the imagination of the Russian people. Nowadays Chinese food in China is difficult to imagine without their national fast food, such as fried Chinese dumplings, which must be tried by every tourist, because all the taste of China life is in them.
In assessing the Chinese cuisine it is impossible to get around the recipe of Peking duck, which can be afforded only by aristocrats, and it can be tried only in expensive restaurants. Poor bird is kept in a small cage and feed salty food for a long time. It is not given a drink and then killed, gutted, scrubbed with powdered sugar. Then it is filled with water in a carcass and baked on the wood of the peach tree.
Modern Mexican cuisine has not changed much over time. The basis of the culinary traditions is the Aztec national dishes and brought Spanish ones. The generous nature of Mexico opens up endless possibilities for art of cooking: a huge amount of herbs and rare spices can give completely different taste to the same dish. Though famous hot pepper jalapeno is considered a symbol of Mexican cuisine, it is not added to all meals. Mixes of vegetables, for example, are very tender and sweetish.
The main cereal in Mexico is corn, but the bread in the usual sense is not baked of it. They bake flat cakes with spices called tortilla. Depending on the filling or the method of folding the tortilla you can get a burrito, enchilada or chimichanga - Mexican cuisine is attractive for this simplicity. Recipes of many dishes consist exclusively of avocado, tomatoes, beans, peppers, corn, and even cactus, so Mexican food is loved by vegetarians. One cannot get bored on a vegetable diet because of the variety of sauces and spicy gravy, which are usually spread on ready-made meals and flat cakes.
The basis of Greek cuisine is made of rather limited set of agricultural products. The snack, although it is served, it often consists only of olives, bread, Feta cheese and tzatziki - the yogurt mixed with a grated cucumber and chives. As the aperitif they drink anisette vodka (uzo), sometimes it is diluted or washed down with water. The greater the feast, the richer is a set of snack that is called “meze” In the name you can feel cuisine feel the Turkish influence. Among the main dishes could be met a lot of dishes which coincide to the smallest details with the Turkish ones, but are called in Greek. Purely Greek national dish is, for example, fish soup (kakaviya) and lemon soup (avgolemono). Favorite drink is coffee which is served in Turkish-style, in a small coffee pot called ‘’cezve”. The typical Greek food is simple, colorful and fragrant.
Cuisine of Georgia is very diverse and refined. It differs with an abundance of all possible kinds of spices, seasonings and sauces. Especially prevalent is tkemali – sour sauce. The favorite dishes are the specialties, roasted on a spit. Widely used is beef, lamb, pork, poultry and fish. In Georgia there is a tradition to serve herbs to the meal at any time of the year: parsley, dill, mint, basil, chives and other herbs. Also to any table radish, whole tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers are served. Viticulture is one of the oldest and most honored classes in Georgia. In Georgia they almost do not drink tea preferring wine and fresh juices.
The originality of Azerbaijan cuisine is that possessing some similarities with other Transcaucasian cuisines - the presence of one and the same type of fireplace (tandoor), cooking utensils and food raw materials - it has created on this basis, a slightly different menu and a whole range of different flavor.
So the main part of the national dishes of the Azerbaijan is different with identities, although many dishes are borrowed, for example, from the Armenian cuisine (dolma), are included in the daily menu of modern Azerbaijani. Azerbaijani dishes, having the vast majority of Turkic names are often very similar to the names of the dishes on the Turkic-speaking peoples of the Middle East and Central Asia, but essentially, by cooking characteristics and taste they are much closer to Iranian cuisine.
Strong influence on the Turkish cuisine has had not only Islam, with its constraints (a ban on the consumption of pork and alcohol, fasting in Ramadan, and others.). In different historical periods in Turkish cuisine, as in the whole Turkish culture, have left their mark and other peoples living in Turkey: Persians, Greeks, Assyrians, Seljuks, Arabs, Kurds, Turks, Armenians…Therefore the modern Turkish cuisine can be considered part of Mediterranean cuisine - in some ways it is similar both to Greek and Balkan one. Feature of Turkish cuisine is that it is impossible to identify one dominant dish, such as pasta in Italy or sauces in France - the national Turkish cuisine is distinguished by the diversity and originality of the menu. Due to the large abundance of dishes, variations of recipes that reflect regional characteristics and their original taste Turkish cuisine occupies, according to experts, the third place among all national cuisines in the world, giving in only to French and Chinese. Most Turkish dishes are useful and well-balanced combination of ingredients. Dolma and sarma (stuffed vegetables ), lentil soup, meat with vegetables, rice or wheat cereal (bulgur), and finally, yogurt, are served almost to all of these dishes - the menu is likely to appeal to everyone. Meat stewed with vegetables in Turkish cuisine is always served with pilau made of rice or wheat.
National Uzbek cuisine is a separate segment of Uzbek nation culture. Unlike their nomadic neighbors, the Uzbeks have always been settled people, cultivating farming and livestock. In its fertile valleys for centuries Uzbeks grew for themselves vegetables, fruits and cereals. They raised cattle, which served as a source of meat, plenty of which can be seen in many dishes.
Sure, Uzbek cuisine has absorbed the culinary traditions of Turkish, Kazakh, Uighur, Tajik, Tatar and Mongol peoples who inhabited the area and neighboring nations. Among the borrowed dishes there are such as roast, kebab, bogursak, brushwood, dumplings, and so lagman. However such native Uzbek dishes as plenty of pilaf, dimlama, buglama, shourpa, and mastava decorate tables around the world.
Many different recipes in Uzbek cuisine connected with the fact that there not only meat products are widely used, but also juicy vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices, grains - all that grow abundantly in this blessed land.
Assyrian cuisine is one of the oldest on earth. Assyrian food raw materials are steady over the centuries. The earliest development of animal husbandry in the Assyrian lands gradually led to the diversity of cultivated species of livestock and poultry. Assyrians bred cows, sheep, pigs, turkeys, chickens, geese and ducks.
Cattle’s breeding was also the source of a variety of dairy products, mostly - cheese and fermented dairy products. Concerning the technology of preparation of the Assyrian dishes - it is difficult and in some cases laborious. Labor-intensive is the process of rolling out the multilayer dough (kyada). Variety of technological methods is reflected in soups: here soups with sour milk egg basis (girdu, bushala), and separately prepared soups (shirwa, d-bysrа), plenty of dishes with ground meat to which are added other components in the ground condition (kutli).
In Assyrian cuisine there are, of course, dishes from natural meat (kebab), as well as dishes from the whole poultry. Favorite flour product in the diet of the Assyrians is special bread - lavash. Most often a vegetable diet is completed with spices. Black pepper, coriander, mint, tarragon, basil, satra, thyme, dill, parsley and, of course, garlic and onions are favorite of them. Assyrian cuisine offers a variable food in composition. It differs by its complicity, rich, delicate flavor and aroma range.