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ECO-TOUR "KINBURN SAND SPIT"
On the right bank of the Liman rises Nicholas Orthodox Cathedral. This is the former Great Mosque of Ottoman fortress Ozi, which means "river" or "Dnieper". This is the only monument of the Ottoman era, which came to our time. According to official data Ochakiv was first mentioned in 1415 as Dashiv.
Together with the Turkic Ozi a new Slavic name Ochakiv is used.
In 1526 Ozi went to the Ottoman Turks ownership, and later became the administrative center of a huge vilayet (region). Strong fortress walls were built and the city has grown considerably.
It is the largest liman among all the Black Sea coastal estuaries. Numerous representatives of marine, brackish and freshwater flora and fauna live here, including relict and endemic species.
The lake maintains relatively high fish productivity: Common Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Common Bream (Abramis brama), Pikeperch (Lucioperca lucioperca), Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Zanthe (Vimba vimba). The coastal part of the reservoir is a spawning place of local fish fauna.
Kinburn Arrow is situated in the western part of the Kinburn pepinsula in front of Ochakov. At its narrowest point one foot can stay in the sea, and another in the liman. This is an important link in the marine coastal ecocorridor, the place of concentration of mass nesting of birds during seasonal migrations.
The small oak-birch, sedge and alder forests scattered throughout sandy spaces of the Peninsula are the peculiar feature of the natural environment of the Kinburn Sand-spit. It is the remains of the famous Hylaeus, the country of forests, according to ancient Greek historian Herodotus, which existed here during the V century BC.
Dunes are sandy hills blown by the wind. Huge amounts of sand have been being accumulated in the Dnieper mouth since last glaciation and continue to pile up now. Dunes can be drifted up to half meter high during a day. Sand is often carried at considerable distance from the marine coast. When the wind is strong the sand fills everything. The only thing that effectively withstands the sand is vegetation.
The lake is shallow and salty, it often dries up in summer. Kinburn Spit allowed to compensate for the lack of natural nesting birds and increase the attractiveness of wetlands for the visitors, as possibility for birdwatching has significantly increased.
Orchid field is located near the village of Pokrovka within coastal meadows between Chernin and Cherepashyne lakes. This is one of the largest and most popular habitats of wild orchids in Europe – (Anacamptis picta), (Anacamptis morio), (Anacamptis coriophora), (Anacamptis fragrans) and (Anacamptis palustris). The area of the orchid field is about 30 hectares.
The water in the lagoon is very well warmed up, that is why microorganisms rapidly develop, and when they wither away, they turn into different groups of organic compounds.
Yahorlyk Bay is located between Kinburn Spit and Peninsula Yahorlyk Kut. It is partially separated with Pokrovska Sand spit, Kruhlyi and Dovhyi Islands from the sea. Bay area is 1 to 4 m deep and freezes in cold winters only.
ISLANDS KRUHLYI AND DOVHYI
These islands in the Yahorlyk Bay is a key nesting site of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) on the Black Sea. It is well known around the world for its extremely light and warm feathers, with which it lines the nest and protects themselves and offspring from the cold.
Coastal sands occupy a narrow strip of the south-western coast of Kinburn Sand Spit more than two dozen kilometers long. They are periodically filled with water, form a specific littoral ridge and are covered with original vegetation.
WATER AREA OF THE BLACK SEA
Shallow areas of the northwest sea shelf have always been quite productive. The sturgeon, scomber, bluefish, mackerel, phyllophora (Phyllophora nervosa) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) used to be actively caught. The crab, pipefish, beluga, Russian sturgeon, sevruga and all three species of dolphins are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.